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¿Latinos o Hispanos?

by on September 14, 2014
 

…”Y… ¿qué somos? ¿Somos latinos o hispanos? ¿Nuestros hijos son americanizados o biculturales? En realidad, lo que sí sabemos es que somos una mezcla, a veces ni blancos ni negros, o todo ello a la vez.

Qué lío, ¿verdad?

Pero es un lío que nos conviene entender, porque es lo que nos ayuda a delinearnos, empoderarnos y cristalizar nuestras metas en el entorno cambiante del país al que ahora pertenecemos.

Estamos hablando de los migrantes de Latinoamérica, que hablan español y que se han trasladado a Norteamérica. Pero su definición depende de múltiples factores. El primero, que cambia radicalmente, es el cómo nos ven y cómo nos vemos, es a qué lugar de Norteamérica hemos venido.

Y son Estados Unidos y Canadá, dos de las economías más fuertes del orbe, dos de los sitios más apetecidos para migrar.

La etiqueta, o dicho más técnicamente, la segmentación que hacen sobre nosotros las agencias de publicidad en Norteamérica, varía según la época y la forma en la que los inmigrantes entraron en estos países, y esto hace una de las principales diferencias entre los hispanos que llegan a Canadá o a Estados Unidos.

“Mientras en Estados Unidos hablamos de un mercado hispano, de más de 50 millones de personas, en Canadá estamos cerca del millón, aunque en el último censo se reflejen apenas 300 mil migrantes del sur del continente”, apunta la experta. Esa es la primera diferencia contundente.

En Canadá, las limitaciones geográficas de acceso al país han hecho que la migración llegue casi exclusivamente por vías legales, las que son realmente estrictas a la hora de seleccionar a sus invitados. En todo caso, estas normas están basadas en las habilidades de trabajo, lo que ha hecho que la migración que está establecida legalmente en Canadá sea altamente calificada.

Esto se parece a lo que está pasando ahora con cierto tipo de migrante a Estados Unidos, pero no es la realidad general, debido al acceso no regular que históricamente ha tenido el país.

Por tanto, mientras en Canadá los primeros en llegar (por el año 1965) fueron refugiados políticos y mano de obra especializada de Chile y Argentina, y fueron denominados para esta segmentación los suramericanos, cerca de los años 90 sus hijos y nietos se convirtieron en los canadienizados, que básicamente perdieron el contacto con su cultura, y manejan poco o nada del español.

Luego del 2010, ingresaron a Canadá los latinoamericanos, un grupo de selectos trabajadores y profesionales, con manejo de por lo menos tres idiomas (español, inglés y francés). “Por lo general son jóvenes profesionales, que ya tienen un grado universitario o un máster”, puntualiza. Sus hijos dominan el inglés y español como primer lengua pero, indistintamente, conservan vínculos culturales y estilos de vida cercanos a sus países. Ellos, finalmente, serían los hispanos.

¿Cómo sería esta segmentación en Estados Unidos?

Este punto es parte central de lo que debemos entender. Según un estudio de Geoscape Hispanicity Segmentation.

Tenemos:

El americanizado: Es el grupo constituido por personas que, básicamente, hablan inglés, nacieron en Estados Unidos, muchos son parte de la tercera generación de hispanos aquí, y tienen pocas o nulas prácticas culturales hispanas.

Nueva Latina: Prefieren el inglés aunque pueden entender y hablar algo de español. Segunda generación de hispanos nacidos en EE.UU. Mantienen algunas prácticas culturales hispanas, son generalmente los retro-aculturados.

Hispanos: Prefieren el español y hablan algo de inglés. Son los inmigrantes adultos que tienen 10 años o más en EE.UU. Sus prácticas culturales son predominantemente hispanas.

Latinoamericana: Grupo en que el español es el idioma básico, con muy poco manejo del inglés. Son inmigrantes recientes, adultos con menos de 10 años de haber llegado a Estados Unidos. Todas sus prácticas culturales son hispanas y se identifican más con sus países de origen que con EE.UU.

Y los biculturales: Grupo similar en el caso de Canadá y Estados Unidos, son inmigrantes jóvenes o en etapa de niñez, totalmente bilingües y con numerosas prácticas culturales hispanas.

Conocer esta segmentación nos ayuda a situarnos en el espacio y les ayuda a los emprendedores de origen hispano a enfocar mejor sus esfuerzos de mercadeo, para la creciente población Bicultural en Norteamérica…”

Entrevista hecha por Miami Diario a Giuseppina Russo

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  • September 17, 2014 at 10:17 pm

    Hola Adrian! I wanted to respond to your article because although in some of yours and/or Pina Russo’s observations are correct but there’s more to the story and I think just as you try to define US Latino’s someone needed to do their homework on how to define Canadian Latinos.

    The problem lies in how Eastern Canada Latino’s see Western Canada Latino’s or more precisely, don’t see.
    Canada is a huge country, usually divided unfortunately by economics, football and hockey 🙂

    For the Latino community though, it has come down to how we are defining ourselves in a country where we are not the dominant language nor the dominant culture as in the United States, we don’t and won’t ever have a second language to call our own legally it will either be French or English. This country is made up of so many cultures and peoples, and also take specially care to be inclusive to the first Nations that we are guests to.

    I live in Edmonton Alberta Canada. Yesterday for example we help a first event of it’s kind where we celebrated our Arts & Culture and recognizing the work of our not for profit organizations and workers. We did this for a few reason one of which was Cultural Competence, to teach not just Edmonton but even our own Latinos what it will mean to be Latino here in Edmonton now and in the Future, and why it’s important to keep our culture alive. To give recognition to first Nations so that we never feel entitled like so many settlers before us have come to behave.
    A lot of us are being decolonized of the white European culture that we have come to learn here because when we were exiled here, we were taught that white culture was more important than ours, that we had to almost forget who we were so that we could fit in, get jobs and learn the language fast so as not to face the barriers we faced and fit in as best we could to the dominant culture. We celebrated our cultures once or twice a year and the rest of the year we were Canadian white. Our cultures taking a back seat so much so, that we give no importance to our roots, to our language, to who we are as a people.
    Yesterday We declared September 15 to October 15 Latino Heritage Month and if you would ask Latinos from BC or other western provinces, they would probably agree with us that we are Latinos, and that this would be the right thing to do to have our celebration because so many Latino countries have Independence Days in this time frame and also, historically here in western Canada because of the exiles, September and October has been our traditional celebrations and Fiestas.

    Some months ago, a few organizations from Toronto had not only petition their Municipal government but also Provincial and Federal to declare October as the Hispanic Heritage month Nationally. There was no consultation with Western Canada Latinos. I was told that because some of them had been here longer [ I’ve been in Canada since 1975] so I’m not sure who in Ontario made the call and why they feel that their choice, because they are the bigger population, should be the voice that counts and us Latinos in Western Canada should just follow along. Their celebration and what they do does not define us here in Western Canada.
    We agree that if they chose as a Municipality and a Province to designate October as their Hispanic Heritage Month then that is their right and choice, but when it comes to petitioning the Federal government we think that it’s not only disrespectful to those of us here in Western Canada who’ve been holding celebrations from September to October, but also to the smallest of Latino communities in Canada, even the smallest of voices should have just as equal voice as the bigger cities, otherwise we are perpetuating the same domineering issues from back home and even here with the dominant white culture.

    We need to first start decolonizing our communities and to understand colonization not just here in Canada but also back in our countries and then work on de-colonization, because once you start to see the bigger picture as a Latino, you will not attach yourself to the word Hispanic, Hispanic denotes ties to Spain/Portugal which colonized Latino America in the most brutal of ways. We know that there is a great movement right now in Latino American trying to undo that wrong and so we Latinos that now live here in Canada have a responsibility to First Peoples of this country to never forget where we came from, never forget our culture but at the same time respect each others traditions.

    We appreciate the first person analysis from someone in Easter Canada, next time try to get a voice from wester Canada so that you can get a balanced view of what Canada looks like from a Latino perspective.
    We have the biggest migration of Latino workers in Alberta right now because of construction and the Oil and Gas sector, in Edmonton we are not a large community but right now we stand over 15,000 Latinos strong and growing.
    We are Latino’s and we define ourselves as Latinos not Hispanics, we need to find a middle ground here until everyone is caught up in understanding how we have been colonized in this country and the colonization mentality we bring from our own countries. For those of us waking up from our colonized mentality. We are no longer white on the inside and Latinos on the outside. We know why de-colonizing is important because it breeds respect to understand that not knowing who you are [because some call themselves Latino but don’t understand what that means when their mind was programmed to be white, this is especially true for our children who are being born here and growing up here in a white culture; everything they learn is about the white culture] it breeds entitlement, entitlement breads hate, hate breeds racism and discrimination and since we have moved here as Latinos we have participated and watched the racism and discrimination not just against ourselves but others and most of all the First Nations peoples of Canada.
    We have a responsibility as Latino Settlers to undo the damage that has already been done for the sake of our children because in Canada we have to work double hard to define ourselves as Latinos, this isn’t the US and so we must work harder to keep our Culture alive and not forget our roots at the same time have clear understanding of our colonized mentalities and really thinking about what that means because we all carry that bug, any settler who says otherwise doesn’t see the bigger picture.

    Reply

    • adrian
      September 18, 2014 at 1:48 am

      Gracias Ingrid, excelente aporte, y perfecto para un debate, como lo prefieres en inglés o español, te animas a grabar un podcast con nosotros? Saludos. Adrián Peláez

      Reply

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